photo of underwater view of a pool ledge with a ladder

Once considered the perfect solution to pool and spa sanitizing challenges, saltwater chlorination systems have come under fire from some who express concerns about corrosion of metal components and damage to deck materials due to splash out. In this special feature, Senior Editor Eric Herman takes a look at the technology with an eye toward overcoming some of those problems while maximizing the benefits, and the trends that might impact the future of the "saltwater pool."

Electrolytic saltwater chlorination of swimming pools came on the scene in the U.S. as a "mainstream" alternative to traditional chlorination methods in the late 1970s. The technology had been in use for several years in Australia where it met with tremendous market success — estimates range from 70 to 90 percent of pools in the Land Down Under are sanitized using some form of saltwater chlorination.

Proliferation of the technology in the U.S. has come more slowly, but by the mid-1990s it was clear that saltwater chlorine generators were gaining greater and greater acceptance. Growing numbers of builders turned to electrolytic chlorine generators (ECGs) as their preferred method of chlorination due to an extremely compelling list of benefits, and soon consumers began boasting about their "saltwater pools."

The concept is simple: Salt is added to water to reach concentrations typically ranging from 2,800 to 3,500 ppm (that equates to about 50 pounds of salt per 2,000 gallons of water), a concentration that is roughly 7 to 15 percent that of seawater and only slightly noticeable to most swimmers. Filtered water passes through an electrolytic chamber where DC current is applied producing hypochlorous acid along with hydrochloric acid, sodium hydroxide, and hydrogen gas. Water passing through the cell reaches "breakpoint" chlorination, which destroys a number of compounds, including inorganic chloramines, the chemical species most commonly associated with chlorine-related problems including eye irritation, chlorine odor and foul taste.

Water's conductivity is increased by the dissolved salt — sodium chloride (NaCl) — that in effect supports the electrolytic reaction that takes place in ECG unit, where the sodium is split from the chloride through the process of electrolysis. Essentially, the technology uses the chlorine in salt to generate free available chlorine residuals needed to sanitize the pool. The sodium recombines with the chlorine and repeats the process, meaning the only salt you need to add is due to splash out, filter backwashing or overflow.

Powerful Benefits

Proponents of the technology are quick to point out that this basic scheme solves a number of problems. No longer is it necessary for the pool owner to rely on manufactured chlorine, stored in warehouses and stockrooms, transported over highways and roads, stored again on site and then added to water either manually or by way of some type of chemical feeder system. In effect, the water becomes self-chlorinating; ECGs replicate in a pool the basic process of production that takes place in a factory. This lightens the maintenance burden on the homeowner.

And because the salt chlorination system does not require mass production or transport, proponents also point to the reduced carbon footprint afforded by the technology.

On top of all that, when combined with ORP (oxidation reduction potential) technology, the level of chlorine in the water can be tightly controlled, eliminating peaks and valleys of residuals associated with periodic chlorine treatments.

All of these characteristics fueled the technology's rapid growth and remain potent selling points. Consumers who own pools treated with saltwater chlorine generation are widely known to boast about their "saltwater pools." Many existing pools have been changed over to the technology and in some cases the residual salt content left behind from the use of sodium hypochlorite is enough to charge the system, meaning there is no need for additional salt.

Combined Approaches

While most ECGs operate as stand-alone systems, some experts believe the future of the technology involves the increasing use of ECGs in conjunction with other treatment regimens in a sort of combined or "cocktail" approach.

This trend has caught on in Europe to a far greater extent than in the U.S. Overseas, combined technologies such as ozone and saltwater systems, or tandems using hydrogen peroxide, bromine and UV are becoming more and more widespread.

Ozone, for example, is a powerful sanitizer and oxidizer but cannot provide a residual. When used with a salt system in combination, the sanitizing residual is maintained, but chlorine can be kept at a much lower level.

By the same token, UV systems kill bacteria in the UV chamber, while saltwater systems augment that action by providing sanitizing and oxidizing action throughout the entire body of water.

The advent of the cocktail approach has also reportedly led to much wider acceptance of the systems in commercial settings. Although many health departments are still reluctant to use saltwater systems, based largely on concerns over the systems' abilities to keep up with chlorine demand when bather load surges, combining saltwater chlorination with a technology such as ozone, which can deliver tremendous sanitizing power quickly, has deflected some of those concerns.

Manufacturers of saltwater systems also note that systems should be sized so their daily operating output level is well below maximum output so that in the case of elevated chlorine demand, the system can be temporarily ramped up via an ORP controller to generate higher concentrations of chlorine.

In any case, as many saltwater pool advocates are quick to point out, we now see many hotels and resorts using saltwater pools as a selling points in promotional material.

New Resistance

Not all of the trends, however, are so favorable where saltwater chlorination is concerned. As is true of most any aquatic sanitizing product or technology, saltwater chlorine generation has run into its share of critics, who point to a range of potential problems.

On the most basic level, there are those concerned about the way that the systems are sold, or more accurately, over-sold. They point to consumers who believe that because they have a saltwater pool, their pool is not chlorinated. Because many people are interested in avoiding problems associated with chlorine, ranging from odor to chlorine byproducts, there is a concern that saltwater chlorine generation has been sold as an "alternative" sanitizer.

Of course, nothing could be further from the truth because saltwater pools produce the same levels of chlorine in pool water as traditionally chlorinated pools.

More troubling still is the perception that the technology is maintenance free. The units themselves require regular scale cleaning, and ECG life span varies greatly between a single year to perhaps five or six.

The system's outputs must be regularly monitored to ensure proper performance, and overall water balance must be maintained to prevent damage to pool surfaces and metallic components, such as copper heat exchangers and stainless-steel filter internals.

Pool water chemistry and maintenance in saltwater pools has been perhaps the most salient concern. Even in the earliest days of the technology, service technicians began noticing that the pH and total alkalinity levels in saltwater pools would rise rapidly, sometimes at rates that were difficult to handle on weekly service.

As pH drifts upward, techs noticed, ORP levels dropped, requiring greater concentrations of chlorine to achieve the same levels of oxidation and sanitation. A solution to this problem has been developed where pH controllers are added to the system to continually add acid as needed to control pH and total alkalinity, but this of course adds cost and complexity.

Perhaps the greatest concern involves corrosion of pool equipment and cementitious or stone surfaces adjacent to the pool. Even the most staunch advocates of the technology acknowledge that saltwater is corrosive and will attack certain alloys, including stainless steel. Their response is to turn to equipment that uses material suitable for saltwater pools, such as filters using polymer components.

Many builders have also reported significant problems with splash out, where the water evaporates and leaves high concentrations of salt behind that damages porous coping or permeable types of stone. Again, proponents counter that the key is to be aware of this issue and select materials that resist damage or to use sealant products to protect surfaces.

Balanced Perspectives

The key in all of this, say proponents, is to realize the limitations of saltwater chlorination systems and how to use them properly in terms of chemical balance, equipment selection and materials selection. They claim that any type of chemical treatment program requires management and that there is no such thing as a completely maintenance-free system.

They also recommend automation to maintain proper chlorine levels and mineral balance.

Companies that provide salt for use in these systems will argue that the type of salt is important, because ordinary mill salt can bring impurities that will contribute unnecessarily to total dissolved solids levels. Additionally, chemistry experts from manufacturers suggest using sequestering agents to assist in preventing precipitation of minerals onto plaster surfaces.

The ultimate bottom line, as is true with most technologies and materials associated with bodies of water, is to set reasonable expectations for performance and maintenance with homeowners and commercial pool operators. With appropriate expectations and measures in place, proponents argue that these systems will continue to provide attractive solutions to water-treatment challenges.

Comments or thoughts on this article? Please e-mail

Eric Herman is Senior Editor of AQUA Magazine.
Robert W Lowry 1 week ago
I would only add that I always recommend using 50-70 ppm borate with an ECG pool. The borate acts a buffer against rises in pH. The pH doesn't go up as quickly and the borate acts as an algaestat (an algae preventive but not an algae killer). Also, the total alkalinity on an ECG pool needs to be keep low to keep the pH from going up. And lastly, pools with ECG's need to be sure that they are grounded. With a high level of salt and other TDS, the TDS may be greater that 5,000 or 6,000 ppm. This makes a good electrical conducting solution. Think of the pool as a very large battery. Proper grounding is essential or staining and deposits from electrolysis will occur. To avoid salt corrosion on decks, coping and handrails, they can be rinse off after pool use with source water and a hose.
I'll stick to my experiences with residential pools in NJ. @Terry of CL-Free - The only residual you have in the water is copper, which as a sanitizer is woefully incomplete and terribly slow to the point of putting people at risk. Since it can take up to five turns of a pool's volume for all the water to pass through the cell's titanium plates, that will leave plenty of time for the bio-badies to reproduce. The lower pH of the water needed by the system conflicts with one's eyes. The plates in your cell also are thick and present a significant amount of resistance to the flow. I think I've done this dance before with your firm and one of your competitors. @Bill Peck - Your last couple lines are why I won't put pools in! Love it! @Eric - I am not so sure the water passing in the cell gets to break point . That would be dependent on the cell capacity and water's velocity. Using ORP with cells is often problematic as CYA levels over 30 ppm, a frequent condition with residential pools and products available to consumers such as Hayward's Sense & Dispense or Pentair's Intellichem are increasingly oversold, whether knowingly or unknowingly, will quickly reduce the useful range the ORP sensor provides. Using UV cells to help with sanitation and or reducing combined chlorine on outdoor pools is a waste. The Sun provides plenty of UV rays and again, it can take of to five turns of the pool's volume to get all the water to pass. Getting the system sized right with indoor pools is also critical! Adding Ozone is another can of worms. Over sizing here can actually increase the chlorine demand and raise combined chlorine. While not a huge risk, I don't like it indoors either as ozone and lungs are not a mix I would want even though ozone has a short half life. As far as I know, nothing reduces the levels of chlorine needed in residential pool water. You can augment it and it's this reason that some commercial operators may add to their chlorine cocktail but you can't reduce it's level without putting people at risk.
Is this supposed to be a forum for manufacturers to advertise their products (ref CLFREE above)?? btw, oxygen is ALSO a chemical. Another example of the problem Eric brings up, the over-selling of products. This doesn't just apply to Cl generators and "chemical free" systems. Everything including the pool itself has been or is being over-sold by some just to make a buck. This or that makes the pool "maintenance free" all the way to curing cancer. Many pool salespeople sell the pool itself as "maintenance free" along with other fantastic claims. One of the reasons the pool industry gets a bad name. As a service and repair person I have the enviable task of informing the customer they've been had (which they already figured out but were hoping wasn't true). The pool salesperson sold you a rock for the backyard, sorry, you bought another car. If you understand the difference then you understand pool ownership. Of course many holler stop being negative! Telling the truth cuts into sales! Who cares about reputation? Just bankrupt the company and open under a different name, they'll never know the difference. My rant for today...
Marco Antonio De Lucca Tuesday, 10 April 2012
Hello! I know salt chlorinators for years and even participate on some ECG(s) projects in Brazil. I agree with almost everything showed in the article. I disagree only when they say ".., service technicians began noticing that the pH and total alkalinity levels in saltwater pools would rise rapidly, sometimes at rates that were difficult to handle on weekly service." The pH increases, but in a very slow way compared to Calcium chlorine and for this reason the alcalinity is not necessary to be controlled every week. Thanks for good issues like that...
Thanks for this well balanced and informative article.